By Aman Hashmi.
Engineering is the application of science and math to solve problems. Engineers figure out how things work and find practical uses for scientific discoveries. Scientists and inventors often get the credit for innovations that advance the human condition, but it is engineers who are instrumental in making those innovations available to the world.
Physicist Freeman Dyson wrote in his book “Disturbing the Universe””, “A good scientist is a person with original ideas. A good engineer is a person who makes a design that works with as few original ideas as possible. There are no prima donnas in engineering.”
The history of engineering is part and parcel of the history of human civilization. The Pyramids of Giza, Stonehenge, the Parthenon and the Eiffel Tower stand today as monuments to our heritage of engineering. Today’s engineers not only build huge structures, such as the International Space Station, but they are also building maps to the human genome and better, smaller computer chips.
Engineering is one of the cornerstones of STEM education, an interdisciplinary curriculum designed to motivate students to learn about science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Engineers design, evaluate, develop, test, modify, install, inspect and maintain a wide variety of products and systems. They also recommend and specify materials and processes, supervise manufacturing and construction, conduct failure analysis, provide consulting services and teach engineering courses in colleges and universities.
The field of engineering is divided into a large number of specialty areas:
- Mechanical engineeringinvolves design, manufacturing, inspection and maintenance of machinery, equipment and components as well as control systems and instruments for monitoring their status and performance. This includes vehicles, construction and farm machinery, industrial installations and a wide variety of tools and devices.
- Electrical engineeringinvolves design, testing, manufacturing, construction, control, monitoring and inspection of electrical and electronic devices, machinery and systems. These systems vary in scale from microscopic circuits to national power generation and transmission systems.
- Civil engineeringinvolves design, construction, maintenance and inspection of large infrastructure projects such as highways, railroads, bridges, tunnels, dams and airports.
- Aerospace engineeringinvolves design, manufacturing and testing of aircraft and spacecraft as well as parts and components such as airframes, power plants, control and guidance systems, electrical and electronic systems, and communication and navigation systems.
- Nuclear engineeringinvolves design, manufacturing, construction, operation and testing of equipment, systems and processes involving the production, control and detection of nuclear radiation. These systems include particle accelerators and nuclear reactors for electric power plants and ships, radioisotope production and research. Nuclear engineering also includes monitoring and protecting humans from the potentially harmful effects of radiation.
- Structural engineeringinvolves design, construction and inspection of load-bearing structures such large commercial buildings, bridges and industrial infrastructure.
- Biomedical engineeringis the practice of designing systems, equipment and devices for use in the practice of medicine. It also involves working closely with medical practitioners, including doctors, nurses, technicians, therapists and researchers, in order to determine, understand and meet their requirements for systems, equipment and devices.
- Chemical engineeringis the practice of designing equipment, systems and processes for refining raw materials and for mixing, compounding and processing chemicals to make valuable products.
- Computer engineeringis the practice of designing computer hardware components, computer systems, networks and computer software.
- Industrial engineeringis the practice of designing and optimizing facilities, equipment, systems and processes for manufacturing, material processing, and any number of other work environments.
- Environmental engineeringis the practice of preventing, reducing and eliminating sources of pollution that affect air, water and land. It also involves detecting and measuring pollution levels, determining sources of pollution, cleaning up and rehabilitating polluted sites and ensuring compliance with local, state and federal regulations.
There is often considerable overlap among the different specialties. For this reason, engineers need to have a general understanding of several areas of engineering besides their specialty. For example, a civil engineer needs to understand concepts of structural engineering, an aerospace engineer needs to apply principles of mechanical engineering, and nuclear engineers need a working knowledge of electrical engineering.
Particularly, engineers require in-depth knowledge of mathematics, physics and computer applications such as simulations and computer-aided design. This is why most college programs include basic engineering courses in a wide range of topics before students choose to specialize in a particular area.
Each Pakistani university and college sets its own admission standards and decides which applicants meet those standards. Therefore, you must apply separately to each university or college. Incoming undergraduates who know they want to study engineering at the collegiate level should take the time to understand what the basic admission requirements are for most schools. It is important for applicants to note that the exact requirements will vary from school to school so it is important to evaluate the criteria, including deadlines, for the programs to which they hope to apply.
If you wish to apply for a graduate (postgraduate) program you should verify the admission requirements with the specific graduate school within the university. Many graduate programs have higher admission standards and some programs require that you send your application directly to their department. You should be in good academic standing if you expect to be admitted to a graduate program. Contact either the admissions office of the graduate school or the chairperson of the department.
Candidates must fulfill the following steps for Engineering Programs
- SSC/ Equivalent certificate (Science) with 60% marks
- FSc Pre-Engineering with minimum 60% overall marks (Part-1 and Part-2 combined); however, a student must also have 60% marks each in Physics, Mathematics & Chemistry for admission
- A-Level / Cambridge students should have IBCC certificate equivalent to FSc Pre-Engineering with overall 60% marks and must have at least C Grade each in Physics, Mathematics and Chemistry for admission
- 50% marks in NAT-1E/ HAT-UG-E or SAT-II (Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics level–II) with at-least 50% marks in each subject
International applicants are also required to fulfill other requirements laid down by Higher Education Commission (HEC) for the admission of international students in Pakistani Higher Education Institutions/ Universities. The details can be accessed by using below link:
The admissions office or graduate school department will send you information about their academic programs and an application form. (You might be able to obtain a specific school’s application form online or at your local educational advising center.) Be sure to send your application to each university or college well before the application deadline. This gives you some extra time to resolve any possible delays.
All in all it is an important field of study and it has brought a drastic change to our lives. It was engineering that brought us out of the caves; it was engineering that took us to the moon; and if we ever make it to the stars, it will be engineering that takes us there. As our knowledge continues to advance, engineers will have new opportunities to find practical uses for scientific discoveries.