By: Engr Asghar Hayat
With the start of industrialization, social and economic transformation of human society took place, standard of living improved, large manufacturing units formed, infrastructure improved, more and more jobs created and the need of energy also increased. Industrialization not only opened new avenues but also challenges, biggest challenge is disturbance in nature. Human life style has enormously changed which created negative impact on nature. This increase in human activity resulted in change in climate. With the human activity, like use of fossil fuel for energy, added greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. These gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and fluorinated gases that stop the reflecting sun rays to move out of atmosphere, thus the temperature of earth is increasing. Furthermore, cutting of trees is adding more, we have so far cleared fifty percent of world forest, eliminated countless species, an international survey shows that global temperature may increase between 1.4 and 5.8 degree Celsius by 2021.The consequences of this are more floods, heat waves, shortages of water and starvation.
Green technology is use of technology in making innovations in such a way that it becomes environment friendly and meets the needs of society without depleting natural resources. Green innovations are nature friendly and involve energy efficiency, safety, renewable resources etc. The goal of this technology is to converse nature.
We can get green energy from water, sunlight, wind, rain, tides, plants, biomass etc, this form of energy is called renewable energy. Pakistan has almost 55, 000MW potential of hydel energy, hydel energy is cheapest, cleanest and indigenous form of energy. We have 2.9 million MW potential of solar energy, almost 300,000 MW potential of wind energy countrywide. We can get huge amount of energy from biomass (9,475 GWh per year from sugarcane trash, 3,071 GWh per year from cotton trash, 23,654 GWh per annum from animal manure, 13,900 GWh per annum from municipal solid waste). In Pakistan 77 percent population lives in villages and rural areas, these areas are much thinly populated and they have very poor or no road infrastructure. Most viable solution in these areas is renewable energy. We are producing 14,635 MW i.e. 64.2% of total electricity from fossil fuel (oil-35.2% + gas-29%). On other hand burning of fossil fuel produces CO2 and other gases. Thus we are bearing double loss, on one hand we are depleting natural resources and in result we are facing climate change.
Global warming and climate change are such issues which cannot be solved within one or two years, it requires determination and continuous efforts. Green technology will be helpful in solving problem of global warming and also the energy crisis. We can reduce the waste and pollution by changing the pattern of production and consumption and we should consider doing it at the earliest to avoid further damage to our environment.