By Engr Tabish Abbassi
In recent years renewable sources of energy are paid much attention to overcome the shortfall in countries like Pakistan. It is of much importance to use maximum of the renewable energy sources to fulfill the power requirement of consumers and it is appreciable if one can generate power using renewable energy sources and also add the surplus power to the national grid. Besides this it is also appreciable if the whole system is fully automated as the whole world is moving toward the automation in each field of life. Intelligent and optimize smart grid system combines power generated from renewable energy sources to major power generation of country. By combining the self-generated power to the national grid it provides an interruption free network, if one source is going to be dead the load is automatically shifted to other active source, the shifting from one source to the other is informed to the owner through SMS. The owner is also informed about the abnormal conditions i.e. under voltage, over voltage. The shifting of load from one source to other could be done through SMS by owner upon the information of the abnormal conditions mentioned above. This technique also dominates other techniques and technologies due to its advantages.
Now a days the major problem in the under developed countries like Pakistan is load shedding due to shortfall. In our country the major part of power is generated through thermal and hydel. By considering the per unit cost of the generation, in case of thermal running cost is high, in case of hydel the initial cost of erection is high. The other disadvantage hydel power generation is that it is seasonal dependent and during low rainfall most of units are to be shutdown thereby increasing shortfall. Despite this most of the power is wasted when someone forget to switched off the load of their house, shop or office etc. Considering the shortfall and the load shedding problem our project provide interruption free network by using different sources like solar, WAPDA and generator. In this interruption free network when one source is out of service the load is automatically shifted to the other active source. These sources are also combined with the national grid so that when power generation is surplus the extra power is delivered to the national grid thereby reducing the electricity bill. Intelligent and optimize smart grid automation system also provides automatic load control system and information of the load through SMS. This all system will lead us to interruption free system that will be economical more efficient and self-fault detection system.
Intelligent and optimized smart grid automation system provide interruption free network by using different sources i.e. Solar, Generator and WAPDA thereby reducing the shortfall problem also reduces electricity bill by combining these source with national grid. Intelligent and optimized smart grid automation is reliable system and pollution free system for production of electricity for office, homes and shops etc. As this system uses renewable energy source likes solar thus this system work well in countries which receive large amount of solar energy. Solar energy source is preferred as this source is free gift of nature. In summer season maximum energy can be received from solar which can be utilized for electricity production. By using this source an interruption free network is designed in which when one source for example solar source is out of service due to low sun light load is automatically shifted to other source. When solar source is out of service the load is shifted to the main WAPDA source. If for example all source are not available or out of service the generator provide the required energy. In automatic system load can be controlled automatically through SMS when owner is out and forget to switch off their home lights, fans or other appliances and also the abnormal conditions of load are informed to the owner through SMS. This whole system is synchronized with national grid, when power generation is surplus the extra power is delivered to the national grid by which the country load shedding problem can be reduced to much extant.
Application of Intelligent and Optimized Smart Grid Automation
• It could be widely used due to following reasons
• Electrical power saving
• Economical and efficient system
• Less maintenance is required
• Electricity bill compensation by reverse metering technique
• This project provides interruption free network by using different energy sources
• Load can be automatically controlled through SMS
Intelligent and Optimized Smart Grid Automation Disadvantages
• Initial cost is high
• Requires network coverage for SMS
• Can only be used where solar energy are available
The main purpose of intelligent and optimized smart grid automation is to provide such a system which is efficient, reliable and most economical to install for the betterment of citizens of a city. Also this project helps to overcome the load shedding in country like Pakistan which is energy deficient country. It is based on some facts that how to compensate electricity bill, decrease maintenance efforts and to build a reliable system. We uses three different sources combined them with national grid to build an interruption free network which can be controlled through SMS.
Smart Grid Technology Comparison with our simple power Grid system
There is a comparison between Smart Grid system and the simple Grid system that we already have in countries like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and in other countries of world. The comparison is according to their working procedure, economical aspects, cost and maintenance and other aspects.
Currently working Grid system in Pakistan has lot of disadvantages as compared to Smart Grid Technology. Currently existing Grid systems have lot of problems regarding communication to the consumers in such a way that they could manage their load according to their requirements as well as their wanting. Existing Grid system does not also provide an effective and simple way of calculation of monthly billing as compared to effective billing system provided by Smart Grid System.
Currently working Grid system is a unidirectional power system i.e. power could only be provided from Grid to consumer through a single way and there is no feedback path in our existing Grid system. Due to above discussed limitations currently working Grid system does not provide reliability in case of any unusual conditions or in case of occurrence of any fault in line during transmission of electrical power i.e. may be breakdown of conductor due to any reason. Then the affected area will remain in blackout condition for all the time till the fault is cleared i.e. conductor in joined again. But for organizational institutes such as hospitals etc electricity is required 24 hours regularly so in existing grid system it is not possible unless an alternative is provided.
Currently working Grid system also not provide safety in case of over voltage and under voltage conditions because consumers are not alarmed through any communication system so as a result we witnessed large number of complaints about damaged applicants due to over voltage or under voltage in our society.
Existing Grid system in countries like Pakistan where billing system is a controversial system does not effectively satisfy consumers i.e. in Pakistan we regularly hear the news about extra billing, consumer has total load may be only few watts but bill that consumer received from Electric Supply Company is in order of thousands.
Smart Grid Technology
Smart Grid system has lot of advantages over currently existing Grid system in some countries like Pakistan, India etc. Smart Grid systems have no problems regarding communication to the consumers in such a way that they could manage their load according to their requirements as well as their wanting. Smart Grid system also provides an effective and simple way of calculation of monthly billing by using smart meters on both sides of transmission line i.e. at Grid end and at Consumer’s end as compared to less-effective billing system provided by existing Grid System.
Smart Grid system is a bidirectional power system i.e. power could be provided from Grid to consumer and if consumer has excessive power production also due to usage of renewable energy sources then reverse metering could also done i.e. power could be transferred back to the Grid station by using other way because there is a feedback path in our smart Grid system. Due to above discussed advantages Smart Grid system provides reliability in case of any unusual conditions or in case of occurrence of any fault in line during transmission of electrical power i.e. may be breakdown of conductor due to any reason. Then the affected area will not remain in blackout condition for all the time till the fault is cleared i.e. conductor in joined again because an alternative way is now provided for supply of power since it is a two way traffic system. So for organizational institutes such as hospitals etc. electricity is required 24 hours regularly which is possible only in smart grid system.
Smart Grid system also provides safety in case of over voltage and under voltage conditions because consumers are alarmed through any communication system i.e. through SMS technology in our project as we use GSM kit or other way could be usage of Internet protocols in countries where internet is easily accessed and available with effective speed, as a result of this communication between consumers and Grid system, we would witness that large number of complaints about damaged applicants due to over voltage or under voltage in our society would be reduced if not completely removed .
Smart Grid system in countries like Pakistan where billing system is a controversial system does effectively satisfy consumers. When in smart grid system the consumers are alarmed through SMS technology that at the time of peak loads applicants of large power should be shut down if not required essentially i.e. Washing machine in homes, Geysers and all other similar applicants should be working at a time so that rates of billing should be low i.e. base loads time. Main advantage is that billing system is all dependent upon the needs and wants of consumer in smart grid system and consumers could manage their bills according to their own desires and by reverse metering billing could be zero if consumer provides equal units to Grid by usage of renewable energy sources or other alternatives.